Vadere

Open Source Framework for Pedestrian and Crowd Simulation

Publications

This page provides a list of publications of the research group and associated researchers about microscopic pedestrian simulations and its underlying models. The list of publications in BibTeX format can be downloaded here.

Simulations with Vadere

If you are using Vadere for your publication, please cite:
Kleinmeier et al., Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding, in Collective Dynamics, 2019. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17815/CD.2019.21

The paper “Vadere: An open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding”

Note: The two-column version of the paper can be found on arXiv.

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }

Simulations in General

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }

Microscopic Locomotion Models

Optimal Steps Model (OSM)

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }

Gradient Navigation Model (GNM)

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }

Social Force Model (SFM)

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }

Cognitive Heuristics (BHM)

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }

Biomechanics Model (BMM)

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }

Reynolds Steering

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }

Models including Psychology

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }

Misc Models

Small Group Coherence

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }

Seating Behaviours

  • [DOI] G. Köster, M. Seitz, F. Treml, D. Hartmann, and W. Klein, “On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd,” Contemporary social science, vol. 6, iss. 3, p. 397–414, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2011b,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Franz Treml and Dirk Hartmann and Wolfram Klein},
    journal = {Contemporary Social Science},
    title = {On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd},
    year = {2011},
    number = {3},
    pages = {397--414},
    volume = {6},
    doi = {10.1080/21582041.2011.619867},
    file = {koster-2011b.pdf:Articles\\koster-2011b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space,” Physical review e, vol. 86, iss. 4, p. 46108, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2012,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Natural discretization of pedestrian movement in continuous space},
    year = {2012},
    number = {4},
    pages = {046108},
    volume = {86},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046108},
    file = {:Articles\\seitz-2012.PDF:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, G. Köster, and H. Bungartz, “The superposition principle: A conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations,” Collective dynamics, vol. 1, p. A2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"oster and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {The superposition principle: {A} conceptual perspective on pedestrian stream simulations},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {A2},
    volume = {1},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2016.2},
    file = {seitz-2016b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] T. Kretz, “Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2009, iss. 03, p. P03012, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kretz-2009,
    author = {Tobias Kretz},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {Pedestrian traffic: on the quickest path},
    year = {2009},
    number = {03},
    pages = {P03012},
    volume = {2009},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2009/03/P03012},
    file = {:Articles\\kretz-2009.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Hartmann, “Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics,” New journal of physics, vol. 12, p. 43032, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{hartmann-2010,
    author = {Dirk Hartmann},
    journal = {New Journal of Physics},
    title = {Adaptive pedestrian dynamics based on geodesics},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {043032},
    volume = {12},
    doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043032},
    file = {hartmann-2010.pdf:Articles\\hartmann-2010.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich and G. Köster, “Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 89, iss. 6, p. 62801, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014,
    author = {Dietrich, Felix and K\"oster, Gerta},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {6},
    pages = {062801},
    volume = {89},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.062801},
    file = {dietrich-2014.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Zönnchen, M. Laubinger, and G. Köster, “Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields,” in In traffic and granular flow ’17, Cham, 2019, p. 307–315.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{zoennchen-2019c,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Matthias Laubinger and Gerta K\"oster},
    booktitle = {In Traffic and Granular Flow '17},
    title = {Towards faster navigation algorithms on floor fields},
    year = {2019},
    address = {Cham},
    editor = {Hamdar, Samer H.},
    pages = {307--315},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    abstract = {Many microscopic models for crowd dynamics use floor fields to navigate agents through geometries. Recently, dynamic floor fields were introduced which adapt to changes in geometry and the density of crowds. They significantly increase the realism of floor field-based simulations. However, the computation of floor fields is time consuming. In case of multiple or dynamic floor fields, which require frequent recomputations, the total simulation run time is dominated by their computation. We present an algorithm to construct floor fields for continuous space models that uses unstructured meshes. Due to the geometrical flexibility of unstructured meshes, our method reduces the computational complexity by using fewer but well-positioned mesh points.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11440-4_34},
    file = {zoennchen-2019c.pdf:Articles\\zoennchen-2019c.pdf:PDF},
    isbn = {978-3-030-11440-4},
    owner = {BZoennchen},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers, A. Templeton, F. Künzner, G. Köster, J. Drury, A. Philippides, T. Neckel, and H. Bungartz, “Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation,” Safety science, vol. 89, p. 288–300, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2016d,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Anne Templeton and Florian K\"unzner and Gerta K\"oster and John Drury and Andrew Philippides and Tobias Neckel and Hans-Joachim Bungartz},
    journal = {Safety Science},
    title = {Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation},
    year = {2016},
    issn = {0925-7535},
    pages = {288--300},
    volume = {89},
    abstract = {Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological
    crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies
    from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of
    the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with
    increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a
    crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process
    of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in
    evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation
    algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to
    computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd
    psychology. That is, we quantify and formalise empirical research on and verbal descriptions of the effect
    of group identity on behaviour. We use uncertainty quantification to analyse the model's behaviour when
    we vary crucial model parameters. In this first approach we restrict ourselves to a specific scenario that
    was thoroughly investigated by crowd psychologists and where some quantitative data is available: the
    bombing and subsequent evacuation of a London underground tube carriage on July 7th 2005.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.001},
    file = {sivers-2016d.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2016d.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {uncertainty quantification, pedestrian, forward propagation, polynomial chaos},
    }
  • [DOI] D. Helbing and P. Molnár, “Social Force Model for pedestrian dynamics,” Physical review e, vol. 51, iss. 5, p. 4282–4286, 1995.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{helbing-1995,
    author = {Dirk Helbing and P\'{e}ter Moln\'{a}r},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {{Social Force Model} for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {1995},
    number = {5},
    pages = {4282--4286},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282},
    file = {:Articles\\helbing-1995.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • J. Schöttl, “Modelling passengers’ seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics,” Master Thesis, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{schoettl-2016,
    author = {Jakob Sch\"{o}ttl},
    school = {Munich University of Applied Sciences},
    title = {Modelling passengers' seating behavior for simulations of pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2016},
    file = {schoettl-2016.pdf:Theses\\schoettl-2016.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] B. Kleinmeier, B. Zönnchen, M. Gödel, and G. Köster, “Vadere: an open-source simulation framework to promote interdisciplinary understanding,” Collective dynamics, vol. 4, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2019,
    author = {Benedikt Kleinmeier and Benedikt Z\"onnchen and Marion G\"odel and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Collective Dynamics},
    title = {Vadere: An Open-Source Simulation Framework to Promote Interdisciplinary Understanding},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {4},
    abstract = {Pedestrian dynamics is an interdisciplinary field of research. Psychologists, sociologists, traffic engineers, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists all strive to understand the dynamics of a moving crowd.
    In principle, computer simulations offer means to further this understanding. Yet, unlike for many classic dynamical systems in physics, there is no universally accepted locomotion model for crowd dynamics. On the contrary, a multitude
    of approaches, with very different characteristics, compete. Often only the experts in one special model type are able to assess the consequences these characteristics have on a simulation study. Therefore, scientists from all disciplines who
    wish to use simulations to analyze pedestrian dynamics need a tool to compare competing approaches. Developers, too, would profit from an easy way to get insight into an alternative modeling ansatz. Vadere meets this interdisciplinary demand
    by offering an open-source simulation framework that is lightweight in its approach and in its user interface while offering pre-implemented versions of the most widely spread models.},
    doi = {10.17815/CD.2019.21},
    file = {kleinmeier-2019.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2019.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {pedestrian, microscopic, open source, software, framework},
    }
  • B. Zönnchen, “Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling,” Bachelor’s thesis Master Thesis, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @MastersThesis{zoennchen-2013,
    author = {Benedikt Z\"{o}nnchen},
    school = {Hochschule M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Navigation around pedestrian groups and queueing using a dynamic adaption of traveling},
    year = {2013},
    month = {September},
    type = {Bachelor's thesis},
    abstract = {Is there a way to influence the medium scale navigation of pedestrians by taking other pedestrians into account and how can this phenomenon increase the realism of the simulation? Inspired by Dirk Hartmann, the Optimal Steps Model, which was developed at the University of Applied Sciences Munich, is extended to navigation around pedestrain groups and queueing. In his contribution, Dirk Hartmann considers a new method for dynamic medium scale navigation in microscopic pedestrian simulation. The central idea is to replace the constant speed function F = 1 in the Eikonal equation by a speed function that depends on the local density. A new contribution is to calculate potential differentials to consider the influence of walking direction and walking speed on navigation behavior. Another important part of this work is a first contribution to forced-based modelling of queueing. The idea is to increase the speed F for areas with a high local pedestrian density. An adequate definition of density is required and has to be discussed. It will be shown that the measurement of the density can be done efficiently using image processing techniques.},
    file = {Bachelor thesis:Theses\\zoennchen-2013.pdf:PDF},
    howpublished = {Bachelor's thesis, University of Applied Sciences Munich},
    keywords = {informatics, mathematics, modeling, validation, calibration, pedestrian, evacuation, traffic, potentials},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz and G. Köster, “How update schemes influence crowd simulations,” Journal of statistical mechanics: theory and experiment, vol. 2014, iss. 7, p. P07002, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2014b,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
    title = {How update schemes influence crowd simulations},
    year = {2014},
    number = {7},
    pages = {P07002},
    volume = {2014},
    doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/2014/07/P07002},
    file = {seitz-2014b.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, N. W. F. Bode, and G. Köster, “How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement,” Journal of the royal society interface, vol. 13, iss. 121, p. 20160439, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2016c,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Nikolai W. F. Bode and Gerta K\"oster},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    title = {How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement},
    year = {2016},
    number = {121},
    pages = {20160439},
    volume = {13},
    doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0439},
    file = {seitz-2016c.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2016c.pdf:PDF;Supplement:Misc\\seitz-2016c-supplement.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {heuristics},
    }
  • [DOI] I. von Sivers and G. Köster, “Dynamic stride length adaptation according to utility and personal space,” Transportation research part b: methodological, vol. 74, p. 104–117, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{sivers-2015,
    author = {Isabella von Sivers and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Transportation Research Part B: Methodological},
    title = {Dynamic Stride Length Adaptation According to Utility And Personal Space},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {104--117},
    volume = {74},
    doi = {10.1016/j.trb.2015.01.009},
    file = {sivers-2015.pdf:Articles\\sivers-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • B. Kleinmeier, G. Köster, and J. Drury, “Agent-based simulation of collective cooperation: from experiment to model.”
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{kleinmeier-2020,
    author = {Kleinmeier, Benedikt and K\"{o}ster, Gerta and Drury, John},
    title = {Agent-Based Simulation of Collective Cooperation: From Experiment to Model},
    abstract = {Simulation models of pedestrian dynamics have become an invaluable tool for evacuation planning. Typically crowds are assumed to stream unidirectionally towards a safe area. Simulated agents avoid collisions through mechanisms that belong to each individual, such as being repelled from each other by imaginary forces. But classic locomotion models fail when collective cooperation is called for, notably when an agent, say a first-aid attendant, needs to forge a path through a densely packed group. We present a controlled experiment to observe what happens when humans pass through a dense static crowd. We formulate and test hypothesis on salient phenomena. We discuss our observations in a psychological framework. We derive a model that incorporates: agents' perception and cognitive processing of a situation that needs cooperation; selection from a portfolio of behaviours, such as being cooperative; and a suitable action, such as swapping places. Agents' ability to successfully get through a dense crowd emerges as an effect of the psychological model.},
    date = {2020},
    file = {kleinmeier-2020.pdf:Articles\\kleinmeier-2020.pdf:PDF},
    journaltitle = {Submitted to Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
    keywords = {informatics, psychology, experiment, stationary, static, crowd, density, modeling, behavioral changes},
    owner = {bk},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12712},
    }
  • [DOI] M. Seitz, G. Köster, and A. Pfaffinger, “Pedestrian group behavior in a cellular automaton,” in Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2012, 2014, p. 807–814.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{seitz-2014,
    author = {Michael Seitz and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Alexander Pfaffinger},
    booktitle = {Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012},
    title = {Pedestrian Group Behavior in a Cellular Automaton},
    year = {2014},
    editor = {Weidmann, Ulrich and Kirsch, Uwe and Schreckenberg, Michael},
    pages = {807--814},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-02447-9-67},
    file = {seitz-2014.pdf:Conference\\seitz-2014.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • [DOI] M. J. Seitz, F. Dietrich, and G. Köster, “The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories,” Physica a: statistical mechanics and its applications, vol. 421, p. 594–604, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{seitz-2015,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz and Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster},
    journal = {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
    title = {The effect of stepping on pedestrian trajectories},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {594--604},
    volume = {421},
    doi = {10.1016/j.physa.2014.11.064},
    file = {seitz-2015.pdf:Articles\\seitz-2015.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • C. W. Reynolds, “Steering behaviors for autonomous characters,” in Game developers conference, San Jose, CA, 1999, p. 763–782.
    [Bibtex]
    @Conference{reynolds-1999,
    author = {Craig W. Reynolds},
    booktitle = {Game Developers Conference},
    title = {Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters},
    year = {1999},
    address = {San Jose, CA},
    pages = {763--782},
    publisher = {Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, CA},
    file = {:Conference\\reynolds-1999.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {gaming},
    url = {http://www.red3d.com/cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.html},
    }
  • [DOI] F. Dietrich, G. Köster, M. Seitz, and I. von Sivers, “Bridging the gap: From cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics,” Journal of computational science, vol. 5, iss. 5, p. 841–846, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{dietrich-2014b,
    author = {Felix Dietrich and Gerta K\"{o}ster and Michael Seitz and Isabella von Sivers},
    journal = {Journal of Computational Science},
    title = {Bridging the gap: {From} cellular automata to differential equation models for pedestrian dynamics},
    year = {2014},
    number = {5},
    pages = {841--846},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jocs.2014.06.005},
    file = {dietrich-2014b.pdf:Articles\\dietrich-2014b.pdf:PDF},
    }
  • M. J. Seitz, “Simulating pedestrian dynamics: towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making,” PhD Thesis, Munich, Germany, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @PhdThesis{seitz-2016,
    author = {Michael J. Seitz},
    school = {Technische Universit\"{a}t M\"{u}nchen},
    title = {Simulating pedestrian dynamics: Towards natural locomotion and psychological decision making},
    year = {2016},
    address = {Munich, Germany},
    file = {seitz-2016.pdf:Theses\\seitz-2016.pdf:PDF},
    url = {https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/?id=1293050},
    }
  • [DOI] G. Köster, F. Treml, and M. Gödel, “Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models,” Physical review e, vol. 87, iss. 6, p. 63305, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{koster-2013,
    author = {Gerta K\"{o}ster and Franz Treml and Marion G\"{o}del},
    journal = {Physical Review E},
    title = {Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models},
    year = {2013},
    number = {6},
    pages = {063305},
    volume = {87},
    abstract = {The social force model of Helbing and Moln\'ar is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.},
    doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.87.063305},
    file = {koster-2013.pdf:Articles\\koster-2013.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {differential equations, numerics, modeling, pedestrian},
    }
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